Russian agriculture has been one of the fastest growing segments of the economy in recent years with gross output up 2.4 percent in 2017, as the Russian economy emerged from a two-year recession. In 2017, Russia was the world’s largest exporter of wheat, the second-largest producer of sunflower seeds, the third-largest producer of potatoes and milk, and the fifth-largest producer of eggs and chicken meat. Russia’s transition from import dependence in the 1990s toward self-sufficiency traces back to 2005, when agricultural support policies were launched on a meaningful scale. From 2014, these were supplemented by protectionist counter sanctions, with continued use of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) as technical barriers to trade (TBT). As a result, Russia has transformed its agriculture sector from a modest level of production in the 2000s to a significant contributor to the economy and growing global player, competing with the United States in the global wheat market and regionally in poultry markets.