Russia: Agricultural Economy and Policy Report
Russian agriculture has been one of the fastest growing segments of the economy in recent years with gross output up 2.4 percent in 2017, as the Russian economy emerged from a two-year recession. In 2017, Russia was the world’s largest exporter of wheat, the second-largest producer of sunflower seeds, the third-largest producer of potatoes and milk, and the fifth-largest producer of eggs and chicken meat. Russia’s transition from import dependence in the 1990s toward self-sufficiency traces back to 2005, when agricultural support policies were launched on a meaningful scale. From 2014, these were supplemented by protectionist counter sanctions, with continued use of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) as technical barriers to trade (TBT). As a result, Russia has transformed its agriculture sector from a modest level of production in the 2000s to a significant contributor to the economy and growing global player, competing with the United States in the global wheat market and regionally in poultry markets.