On September 28, 2018, the South African Revenue Service published notifications that a safeguard duty of 35.3 percent will be imposed on EU bone-in chicken. The duty will depreciate over four years to 15 percent. The safeguard duty is expected to negatively affect the competitiveness of EU bone-in chicken imports in the South African market, which is currently dominated by Brazil and the United States. In 2016, the EU was the largest exporter of bone-in chicken meat to South Africa, followed by the United States and Brazil. However, in 2017, the EU lost substantial market share due to the provisional safeguard duty and the avian influenza outbreaks. Between January and August 2018, the United States exported about 57,100 tons of bone-in chicken to South Africa, with a market share of almost 29 percent.