On October 25, 2017, the Government of Russia expanded countersanctions on agricultural trade, banning imports of live swine and meat by-products from the countries that have applied economic sanctions against Russia. Pure-bred breeding animals are exempted. Despite ongoing difficulties in containing the spread of African Swine Fever, strong consumer demand and low feed prices are expected to drive Russian pork production to 3 million MT in 2018. Pork imports are expected to remain stable at 350,000 MT. Structural weaknesses in the Russian beef sector continue to limit growth. Russian beef production is forecast to reach 1.3 million MT in 2018.