Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) began to affect Russian domestic and commercial flocks at the end of 2016. The earliest cases were identified as H5N8 serotype. However, the Russian Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) considers the later HPAI instances in Astrakhan, Rostov-on-Don, and Krasnodar to be a reoccurrence of a single strain of H5 and has not specified the exact virus serotype. Belarus and Kazakhstan have instituted temporary restrictions on imports from Russia following the outbreaks. After the HPAI outbreak in the United States in 2014, Russia imposed restrictions on the import and transit of all U.S. poultry-related products. These bans are still in place despite OIE recognition of the U.S. as an HPAI free country. Russia has also imposed several other bans on neighboring countries due to HPAI outbreaks.