Spain is the largest grower of biotech corn in the European Union (EU) and a major consumer of genetically engineered (GE) soybean meal in animal feed. The country has traditionally defended a science-based approach to agricultural biotechnology. In June 2018, Spain split its cabinet level responsibilities for agricultural and environmental affairs into two different Ministries: the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and the Ministry for Ecological Transition. This development has had no immediate impact on Spain’s approach to biotechnology. The recent ruling by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on new breeding techniques (NBTs) has sparked domestic discussions on the feasibility of its implementation at the Member State level. It has also raised concerns over its potential negative impact on Spain’s research and agricultural competitiveness.