A free trade agreement between Japan and the European Union (EU) and a rapidly closing Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) arrangement will lead to increased market competition for wheat and wheat product exports to Japan. The two agreements are likely to contain similar tariff concessions for a wide range of wheat products including food wheat, pasta and flour. The Japan-EU agreement could enter into force as early as 2019 while Japan continues to advocate for a CPTPP without the United States. Meanwhile, the Government of Japan is strengthening opportunities for domestically produced wheat and wheat products through countermeasures. In 2016, Japan imported $1.4 billion of wheat, 45 percent from the United States.