The growth of South African tree nut production is expected to continue in the 2019/20 MY, based on the increase in area planted as the industry responds to increasing demand from export markets; new orchards coming into production; and the high returns per hectare of tree nuts relative to other crops. The impact of COVID-19 on tree nut production, demand and supply chains has been minimal to date. Almonds, walnuts, and pistachios are the leading tree nut exports from the United States into South Africa, and additional opportunities exist in the trade or licensing of new varieties and planting materials. However, the rising production of almonds, walnuts, and pistachios in South Africa may impact United States exports in the long term if this trend continues. South African tree nut exports to the United States, especially macadamia are expected to continue growing based on the duty free access in the United States under the African Growth Opportunity Act (AGOA) and growing demand.