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Kiwifruit Situation and Outlook
World kiwifruit production for 2000/01 increased by 4.5 percent to over 1.0 million tons; global exports increased by 1 percent. Exports from Italy, which account for about 40 percent of Italy’s production, are expected to decline by 12 percent. Exports from New Zealand, the world’s second largest producer and exporter, are forecast to increase by 4 percent to total 220,633 tons. United States kiwifruit production in 2001/02 is down significantly due to poor weather; however, exports are forecast to only decline slightly. Global kiwifruit prices are expected to rebound in 2001/02 due to lower supplies in the market.
World production of kiwifruit reached
1.0 million metric tons in 2000/01, up 4.5 percent from the previous year.
Approximately half of the kiwifruit produced this year originated
in the Europe Union (EU).
The Italian marketing season begins
October 15. In 2000,
production was up by 3 percent from the previous year.
Production for 2001 is forecast to decrease by 12.5 percent, due to
poor weather conditions. However,
with the area planted continuing to expand, production is expected to
rebound in subsequent years.
Spanish production of kiwifruit has
also been hindered by poor weather conditions, with a forecasted decline
of 25 percent in 2001. According
to official sources, Spain is expected to increase its area planted by
about 20 hectares for 2002. However,
high land costs and limited area in the northern producing regions, may
hamper expansion efforts.
The Greek kiwifruit crop in 2001was hit extremely hard by bad weather, decreasing production by 39 percent. Despite the low yield, fruit quality was high. In 2001, grower prices in the major producing district of Pieria as well as in the Preveza – Arta area were higher than 2000 due to smaller crop and the larger size of the fruit.
The total kiwifruit production for
marketing year (March –February) 2001/02 is forecast at 242,640 tons,
2.3 percent larger than the 2000/2001 crop.
This is due to increased volumes of ZESPRI gold coming on stream
from previous plantings. Volumes of the ZESPRI gold are expected to be
30-40 percent greater than in 2001. Other
varieties are expected to remain stable.
In 2001, Chilean production of
kiwifruit is expected to increase by 5 percent due to excellent weather
and an ample water supply for irrigation.
A slightly smaller crop is expected in 2002 because of cold weather
during the flowering period last spring.
In the coming years, only slight increases in production are
expected, as there are no new plantings.
Chile's kiwifruit production is expected to level off in one or two
years with a total production of close to 160,000 metric tons.
Growth in world kiwifruit production,
coupled with improved storage facilities, have allowed kiwi sales in the
northern and southern hemispheres to overlap, resulting in the continued
deterioration of export prices and a fall in economic returns for most
kiwi producers in Chile.
Total world exports reached 717,500 in
2000. This is only a slight increase from 1999, but a substantial jump (17
percent) from 1998. Approximately
87 percent of the world’s exports in 2000 originated in Italy, New
Zealand and Chile.
Most Italian kiwifruit exports in 2000
were delivered to EU countries. Germany
remains the major export market, importing 27 percent of total Italian
exports. Other key markets
include France, Spain, the Netherlands and the UK.
The top markets for New Zealand kiwifruit in 2000 were Japan,
Spain, Australia, the UK and the United States (7 percent). Key markets for Chilean kiwifruit are the United States (25
percent in 2000), Argentina, the Netherlands and Italy.
The EU has contributed almost half of the world exports over the past several years. However, over 70 percent of the exports are shipped to member countries within the EU.
Total world imports were 751,178 tons in 2000, up 13 percent from the previous year. The top five importers in 2000 were Belgium-Luxembourg, Germany, Spain, United States, and Japan. The EU countries are primarily supplied by the top EU exporters (Italy, France and Greece). Chile is the key provider to the Japanese market. The Unites Sates imports primarily from Chile and New Zealand.
Total U.S. exports remained
relatively unchanged in MY2000 (Nov. 2000 – Oct. 2001).
The key markets for US exports in 2000 were Canada and Mexico,
comprising 52 and 39 percent of U.S. exports, respectively.
Kiwifruit exports to Mexico almost tripled since 1998.
However, significant market share has been lost in Asian markets
(i.e., Japan, Hong Kong, Korea and Taiwan) over the past five years.
The United States has 17 percent of the
market share in the Canadian market, lagging behind New Zealand (38
percent) and Italy (23 percent). The United States is also third in the
Mexican market behind Chile (45 percent) and New Zealand (32 percent),
holding 21 percent of the market.
Total U.S. imports were up 7 percent in 2000, compared to the previous year. Chile and New Zealand supplied 80 percent of U.S. imports of kiwifruit in 2000. The other 20 percent originated, primarily, in Italy and Greece.
Italian kiwifruit exports increased significantly in 1999 and 2000 due to large domestic supplies. However, 2001 supplies and exports are expected to decline. Italy’s key competition comes mostly from other EU countries, mainly France and Greece.
global sales volume of kiwifruit for the 2001/2002 season is forecast at 4
percent above the previous season. Globally, Zespri Green kiwifruit
varieties are up 4 percent from the last season with 183,600 tons sold.
Zespri Gold kiwifruit volumes were up 16 percent at 16,920 tons.
large volumes of Zespri Gold fruit made selling conditions difficult for
Zespri International in the 2001 season.
Zespri Gold was introduced on international markets for the first
time in 2000, and ran into problems that affected grower returns for this
product. Zespri has reported
the Gold fruit as being a more difficult product because it has a shorter
selling season than the traditional Green variety.
The Gold variety ran into difficulties later in the season,
especially in Europe, where Gold sales finished 20 percent lower than 2000
with 11 percent lower prices. Volumes of Gold to Europe were reduced
overall because of quality issues, however, prices were 17 percent above
the Zespri Green variety.
(Gold, Organic, and Green) has seen tremendous growth in East Asia this
season. This region continues
to move ahead of 2000 with volumes up 20 percent in 2001 and prices down
by 10 percent. Net revenues
for the East Asian region were 8 percent above 2000.
The Chilean’s MY2000 (Jan-Dec 2001) exports are estimated to be higher then the previous year, reflecting the increase in production. Although 2001 estimates drop from the previous year, industry sources have indicated that producers expect a smaller but better quality production. Consequently, a larger percentage of the fruit will be exported.
Chile’s kiwifruit exports normally
begin during the last week of March and last through September. However,
improved technology in storage facilities has allowed the export season to
extend through November. End-of-season
exports are mainly sold to Latin American countries.
Consumption for selected countries
(Italy, France, Greece, Spain, United States, New Zealand and Chile)
reached 437,876 in 2000, up by 2 percent from the previous year.
Other major consumers are Japan, Germany and Belgium.
Low prices stimulated kiwi consumption
significantly in MY1999 and MY2000. Prices
are forecast to recover during the 2001/2002 marketing year due to low
Confectionary industry use of kiwifruit
continues to grow. Kiwifruit
are being used for cakes and ice cream.
Sales of kiwifruit in supermarkets and
hypermarkets continue to increase in Italy.
However, most fruit in Italy, including kiwifruit, is still sold in
street markets and fruit shops, generally in bulk.
Kiwifruit consumption in 2001 is expected to increase slightly. Consumption of kiwifruit in Spain has been increasing annually because of consumer preference for healthy food. Kiwifruit has a reputation in Spain as being healthy.
domestic fresh market absorbs now between 18,000 and 21,000 tons annually.
Utilization of kiwifruit for industrial or other purposes (i.e. canned,
frozen, juices and jams) continues to be very small, with limited
prospects for any increase in the near future.
Stocks: As of late December, a total of about 23,000 tons of kiwifruit were available for export and for the domestic market. Of this total about 1,000 tons are in the hands of cooperatives, while the balance is in the hands of shippers/ exporters/ merchants, all held in cold storage. It is expected that about 11,000 tons of these stocks will be exported and the balance sold in the domestic market
French kiwi board (Bureau Interprofessionnel du Kiwi-BIK), funded by
producers, conducts an annual marketing program to promote
domestically-grown kiwifruit on the French market.
In 2001/2002, the
board will launch a massive campaign targeting health professionals, barmen and the media.
The strategy to take the Zespri
business from a seasonal marketer of New Zealand kiwifruit to a 12-month
producer and marketer of world-sourced products is well under way.
A ten-year strategic production and marketing plan is being rolled
out in phases with a management structure in place. Zespri Gold plants are
currently in the ground in Italy, the United States, Japan and a
Chilean producers and exporters continue to target their efforts toward increased consumption in principal export markets with the voluntary quality control program. Both groups are subject to a quality control program similar to the system in effect for most deciduous fruit. In the absence of mandatory quality controls, Chilean fruit exporters have concentrated their efforts on diversifying export markets.
information on production and trade, contact Edwin Lewis at 202-720-5028.
For information on marketing contact Scott Bleggi 202-720-7931.)