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World Pear Situation
|Pear production in selected countries in 2001/02 is forecast at a record 14.1 million metric tons, only 1 percent up from the 2000/01 output. The slight increase mainly reflects a larger crop in China, the world’s largest pear producer. China’s pear production is forecast to reach nearly 9 million tons in 2001/02, a record. Smaller pear crops in 2001/02 are expected in some other important producing countries, including the Netherlands, Italy, Argentina, and South Africa. U.S. pear production is estimated to remain at the 2000/01 level. Selected countries’ pear exports in 2001/02 are forecast at 1.6 million tons, 2 percent above the previous season’s shipments. The 2001/02 U.S. pear export forecast has been revised up 12 percent to 168,000 tons, practically unchanged from the record volume shipped in 2000/01. Ample supplies of good quality fresh-marketed pears, the continue diversion of more processing pears into the fresh market, and growing demand in important markets will likely keep U.S. pear exports strong in 2001/02. U.S. pear exports in 2001/02 are also benefiting from continued U.S. promotion efforts.|
Northern Hemisphere Briefs
Northern Hemisphere pear production to increase slightly in 2001/02
Pear production in selected Northern Hemisphere countries in 2001/02 is forecast up 2 percent from 2000/01 to nearly 13.0 million tons, a record. Production is forecast to increase in China, the world’s major producer. A lower pear crop is anticipated in Italy, the world’s second largest producer. China’s pear production is forecast to increase 5 percent to a record 8.8 million tons, more than 60 percent of 2001/02 selected countries pear output. Italy’s pear production, the largest in the EU, is estimated at a little over 900,000 tons, 3 percent below production in 2000/01. U.S. pear production in 2001/02 is now forecast to remain at the 2000/01 level of around 880,000 tons.
Hemisphere pear exports are forecast to decrease slightly in 2001/02
shipments from China have increased from practically nothing 10 years ago to
about 41,000 tons in 2000/01. Fruit quality in China continues to improve,
contributing to the expansion of China’s
exports to Southeast Asian countries and Russia.
pear shipments in 2001/02 are forecast at 168,000 tons, practically
unchanged from the record shipped in 2000/01. U.S. pear exports in 2001/02 will
continue to benefit from the industry’s market promotion efforts and from
funds assigned under the Market Access Program (MAP), which in fiscal year 2002,
are estimated at $1.2 million. Exports have become vital for the success of the
U.S. pear industry, generating a significant and growing share of the income of
pear farmers. Canada and Mexico together account for more than three-quarters of
total U.S. pear shipments.
assessment on U.S. pears to pay for research; rule also establishes definition
for organic pears
February 6, 2002, the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) published a final
rule establishing a new assessment of $0.03 per standard box of the Beurre
d'Anjou variety of pears grown in Oregon and Washington. The new assessment will
increase the total assessment on this variety of pears to $0.52 per standard box
of conventionally produced and handled pears. This assessment excludes organic
the income derived from the basic assessment will continue to fund regular
programs, the new assessment (approximately $372,000) will be used exclusively
to fund the collection of data on Ethoxyquin residue on stored d'Anjou pears.
Ethoxyquin is an antioxidant that is registered for use on pears in the control
of superficial scald, a physiological disease affecting the appearance of
certain varieties of stored pears. The supplemental rate will not be applicable
to d'Anjou pears that are organically produced, as Ethoxyquin is not used in
their handling and storage.
collection of residue data would satisfy requirements of the Environmental
Protection Agency pertaining to U.S. pesticide tolerance and registration. In
addition, the data will be used in conjunction with the Codex Alimentarius,
which establishes maximum residue limits used as tolerances in many nations
receiving shipments of Oregon and Washington d'Anjou pears.
rule also defined organic pears as pears that have been certified by an organic
certification organization currently registered with the Oregon or Washington
State Departments of Agriculture, or such certifying organization accredited
under the National Organic Program. This definition was established primarily so
that the new assessment could be properly administered.
approves imports of apples and pears from Oregon and Idaho
doorway for fruit trade in the EU
The Netherlands is a large importer and exporter
of pears and other fruits. Pear imports are usually about 100,000 tons, with
countries in the EU supplying about 25 percent and non-EU countries, such as
South Africa, Argentina, and Chile, supplying the remaining 75 percent. Most
Chilean pears destined for the EU market are traded via The Netherlands.
the 2000/01 season, Dutch pear imports decreased 14 percent, with imports the
from Southern Hemisphere countries decreasing by 6 percent. Imports from
Southern Hemisphere countries will likely be hampered by high freight costs.
However, favorable currency exchange rates, especially with the Argentine peso,
could offset high transportations costs and motivate increased pear imports in
The Netherlands: Imports of non-EU Pears
Eurostat * Estimates
two-thirds of Dutch pear production is exported. In 2000/01, Dutch pear exports
totaled nearly 165,000 tons, down from the record 175,000 tons shipped in
1999/2000. Exports normally fluctuate between 80,000 tons and 100,000 tons. On
average, about 80 percent of Dutch pear exports are delivered to other EU member
countries. The United Kingdom is the most important export destination, followed
by Germany. In the last two seasons, France and Sweden have also purchased
larger volumes of Dutch pears. Major non-EU markets include Russia, which
accounts for two-thirds of exports to third countries.
growing market for U.S. pears
Pear production in Mexico is not very
significant. As such,
Mexico continues to rely on imports, mainly from
the United States. Mexico’s pear imports in 2001/02 are estimated at 110,000
tons, unchanged from last season, as demand is expected to remain strong.
However, if the dollar/peso exchange rate in 2002 remains stable, pears will
likely continue as affordable as in 2001, a situation that could spur import
demand. The United States is expected to continue as Mexico’s main supplier of
fresh pears. Market promotion efforts by the U.S. pear industry are continuing
in the supermarkets and street markets of several Mexican cities. This season,
U.S. pear promotional efforts will include use of TV and magazine advertising.
pear consumption in 2001/02 is forecast to remain at around 142,000 tons,
reflecting affordable prices and steady demand. The consumption estimate for MY
2000/01 has been revised downward, due to slightly less demand than expected,
but remains 16 percent above consumption in 1999/2000. The number one pear
preference among Mexicans is the Anjou variety, followed by other varieties like
Bartlett, Bosc, and Red Anjou, which have increased in sales over the past few
seasons. Most U.S. pears come from Washington, Oregon and California. The import
duty on pears under NAFTA is zero.
accounts for about 5 percent of Mexican pear imports. Mexico’s pear imports
from Chile in 2000/01 were up more than 40 percent from the previous year. High
transportation costs make Chilean pears in the Mexican market more expensive
than those from the United States. Chilean producers do not conduct
marketing or promotional campaigns in Mexico. Chilean pears do not yet pose a
serious threat to U.S. pears in the Mexican market and, as such, the presence of
U.S. pears is expected to continue growing. Argentina’s pears are beginning to
increase their presence in Mexico. However, Argentina accounts for less than 1
percent of total Mexican pear imports. The duty on pear imports from Argentina
is also zero.
USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has collaborated
with their Colombian equivalent, the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), to
expand existing ICA sections and combine them into a new Colombian Center for
Phytosanitary Excellence. The Center would be located in Bogotá in the same
building as the current APHIS/ICA cooperative office, which focuses on Foot and
Mouth Disease eradication. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
has agreed to provide funding over three years for the initial cost of
furnishings and equipment as well as the principal operating costs for the
Center for three years.
Center will have primarily two main functions: 1) to develop and maintain a
database on the species and locations of plant pests in Colombia, and 2) to
construct draft pest risk analysis (PRA) for various exotic fruits which
Colombia would like to export to the United States. These draft PRAs would then
be used to define possible pest mitigation methods (treatments, free areas,
systems approach, etc.) for the defined pests.
Southern Hemisphere Briefs
production in selected countries of the Southern Hemisphere in 2001/02 is
forecast at 1.2 million tons, down 7 percent from last season’s output.
Production declines are expected in the principal southern producing countries
of Argentina, South Africa, and Chile.
pear production, the largest in the Southern Hemisphere, in 2001/02 is forecast
at 520,000 tons, 9 percent below the 2000/01crop. The majority of Argentina’s
commercial pear production is located in Rio Negro (about 75 percent). Other
important pear-producing regions in Argentina include Neuquen and Mendoza,
accounting each for about 12 percent of production. More than half of the
Argentine pear crop is exported fresh and the remainder is consumed fresh in the
domestic market, processed into juice, or canned.
2001/02 pear crop is forecast to decrease 7 percent to 232,000 tons. There are
more than 36 pear varieties grown in Chile. The Packham’s Triumph variety,
grown mainly for the fresh market, accounts for about 45 percent of the Chilean
pear crop. The Beurre Bosc variety makes up about 25 percent of Chile’s pear
production and exports.
Southern Hemisphere pear exports to increase in 2001/02
production will likely be lower, pear exports from selected countries in the
Southern Hemisphere in 2001/02 are forecast to increase to 606,500 tons, 7
percent above last season’s shipments. The increase mainly reflects expected
larger shipments from Argentina and South Africa.
pear shipments in 2001/02 are forecast at a record 350,000 tons, 12 percent more
than shipments in 2000/01, based on continued favorable peso exchange rate vis-à-vis
other currencies. Argentina’s fresh pear marketing season is year round with
the bulk exported February through April. Major export markets are Brazil;
countries in the EU, mostly Italy; and the United States.
exports from Chile, the second largest exporter in the Southern Hemisphere, are
forecast to decrease in 2001/02 to 124,000 tons. The EU is Chile’s largest
export market, followed by the United States. During the last few years, sales
to the Far East and Latin American markets have also shown
exports from South Africa, the third largest exporter in the Southern
Hemisphere, are forecast to increase 4 percent in 2000/01 to 105,000 tons, the
result of more exportable supplies at lower prices. Countries in the EU remain
South Africa’s major export markets. South Africa’s pear exports to the
Middle East are also strong, with a 90-percent market share in the region.
in Brazil’s phytosanitary requirements for imported pears jeopardized U.S.
plant quarantine agency (DDIV) eliminated sodium o-phenyl phenol (SOPP) as a
treatment for fire blight on pear imports because the chemical is not registered
in Brazil. Although the SOPP treatment was originally part of a 1996 plant
health technical agreement, the Government of Brazil apparently never
established a tolerance level for the chemical; therefore, the chemical was
never registered. Brazilian federal laws prohibit the use of an unregistered
chemical for phytosanitary treatment purposes. Deep chlorine remains as an
option for treatment of fire blight on pear imports.
change in import regulation hurt U.S. pears seasonal sales to Brazil, since more
than 90 percent of U.S. pear shipments to Brazil each year take place during the
October to December period. U.S. pear shipments to Brazil during the period of
September 2001 to January 2002 were down 70 percent from the same period last
season. Although chlorine treatment remained as an option, it was not a viable
option for most U.S. pear exporters, since much of the fruit destined for Brazil
was treated with SOPP before the announcement was made. Brazil is the third
largest market for U.S. pear sales, with marketing year 2000/01 shipments
totaling more than 7,000 tons, with an associated value of $3.1 million.
Africa’s deciduous fruit industry established a Joint Marketing Forum with
producers, exporters, and government
2001, South Africa’s deciduous fruit industry established a Joint Marketing
Forum with producers, exporters, and government to improve coordination of
exports. However, exports are expected to show only a slight increase, as mildew
infections in some pear production areas, are expected to reduce the volume of
production and export supplies. Exports could increase if the Rand exchange rate
continues to decline. In addition, exports will be assisted by a venture between
producers, exporters and government to form a joint Marketing Forum for better
Africa’s deciduous fruit industry is independent from government intervention.
The government’s involvement is strictly focused towards
international promotion of South African products through trade fairs,
trade missions, and primary market research. The industry’s new mission
includes training of previously disadvantaged producers for the export markets,
and consolidating a central data system.
number of deciduous fruit farmers in South Africa is declining as many fruit
producers liquidated their businesses following financial institutions’
devaluation of agricultural lands in some areas, and the consolidation of small
farms to form larger production units.
(For information on production and trade, contact Samuel Rosa at 202-720-6086. For information on marketing, contact Ted Goldamer at 202-720-8498. The FAS Attache Report search engine contains reports on deciduous fruit for more than 20 countries. Also, visit our apple web page at: http://www.fas.usda.gov/htp/horticulture/apples/html)