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United States Horticultural Exports to Asia
|The Asian region accounts for more than 31 percent of the world market for U.S. horticultural exports. From June/May 2000/01 total U.S. horticultural exports to Asia were approximately $3.5 billion, up 9 percent in value from the preceding year. Japan is the largest Asian export market at more than $1.7 billion, accounting for nearly half of U.S. horticultural exports to Asia. Hong Kong is the next largest export market accounting for 12 percent of U.S. sales to the region. Total exports to Hong Kong exceeded $428 million. Exports to Taiwan amounted to 10 percent of the Asia market, with an export value of over $363 million. South Korea accounts for 8 percent of the market, totaling approximately $289 million. U.S. horticultural exports to China were more than $143 million, which represents 4 percent of the market. The Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, India, and Thailand round out the top ten Asian markets. Citrus and deciduous fresh fruits are among the leading horticultural commodity exports to Asia in 2000/01.|
Top Export Markets
The 2000/01 yen to dollar exchange rate is currently at Y120 to US$1; a 10-percent increase from the same period last year. Despite a decreasing yen value and continued economic stagnation, Japan remains the top market for U.S. horticultural exports to Asia. Exports in 2000/01 are valued at $1.7 billion, comparable to last years June-May level. Exports continue to rebound from the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis when exports fell to $1.6 billion. Frozen vegetables and fresh citrus fruits are the leading U.S. horticultural exports to Japan.
Hong Kong continues to be an important market for U.S. exports, second only to Japan. In 2000/01, exports amounted to $428 million, a 3 percent increase from the Asian financial crisis level of $415 million. Hong Kong is a vital transhipping channel for U.S. horticultural exports into mainland China, particularly for fresh citrus and deciduous fruits.
U.S. horticultural exports to Taiwan, led by fresh deciduous fruits and miscellaneous fruit and vegetables, exceeded $363 million in 2000/01. Apples are the most popular imported fruit consumed in Taiwan. For June-May, U.S. exports of apples were more than $2.5 million, a 159-percent increase from the previous year. Canada and the United States are the only countries permitted to export apples to Taiwan in quantities unrestricted by quota. Other importers are restricted by specific quota volumes and phytosanitary requirements. These quotas are expected to be lifted once Taiwan becomes a member of the WTO.
U.S. horticultural exports in 2000/01 to Korea continue to recover from the Asian financial crisis. In 2000/01, U.S. horticultural exports surpassed the pre-financial crisis export value by rising to almost $289 million, up 1 percent from their 1995/96 value. Miscellaneous fruits and vegetables and fresh citrus fruits were leading growth items.
Despite a Minimum Market Access Quota (MMA), U.S. export of fresh oranges into Korea reached record levels in 2000/01. The $58 million in orange exports marked a 100-percent increase from last years export level. Fresh orange non-quota imports exceeded quota imports for the first time, and by a large margin. Three variables underpinned the markets demand for imported oranges: consumers positive perception of California oranges, ample supplies of reasonably-priced quality U.S. oranges, and higher-cost domestic produce. Korea is now the United States third-largest market for oranges. However, industry expectations of steep price increases for California citrus, specifically for oranges, are expected to dampen import demand the latter half of this year. Major competitors to U.S. orange exports include Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
U.S. exports of horticultural commodities into China reached record levels in 2000/01, totaling more than $143 million. This record level marked a 103-percent increase from 1999/2000. Other food preparation commodities, french fries, fresh oranges and grapes were the leading horticultural exports.
The Agreement on Agriculture signed in April 1999 and the Bilateral WTO Market Access Agreement of November 1999 are expected to continue lowering trade barriers in China. While the long-term implications remain to be seen, U.S. horticultural exports into China have been increasing. For the period June-May 2000/01, U.S. orange exports into China rose by more than 500 percent from the previous year to $14.5 million. French fries exports amounted to more than $17 million, while other food preparations topped the export market with $32 million in sales.
Rounding out the top 10 Asian horticultural export markets are the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, India, and Thailand. Combined U.S. horticultural exports to these five countries in 2000/01 totaled approximately $448 million, accounting for approximately13 percent of the Asian market.
Top Horticultural Exports
U.S. exports of french fries, fresh oranges, and fresh grapes continue to recover from the Asian financial crisis. During 2000/01, french fries exports totaled more than $288 million, a 20 percent increase from 1996/97 fresh orange exports grew by 27 percent, totaling more than $232 million; and fresh grapes grew by 25-percent, amounting to more than $158 million.