WORLD AGRICULTURAL WEATHER HIGHLIGHTS
November 10, 1999
UNITED STATES: In October, dry weather reduced soil moisture on the Plains, hampering winter wheat establishment. Meanwhile in the interior Northwest, a late-month storm system provided much-needed moisture for dryland winter wheat and eased the 8-month drought. In the Ohio Valley, widespread early-month rainfall eased the 15-month drought and promoted winter wheat emergence, although drier weather returned after mid-October. Occasional showers improved soil moisture in the Southeast. At mid-month, Hurricane Irene crossed southeastern Florida, producing widespread flooding and strong winds that adversely affected vegetables. Although Irene remained offshore thereafter, heavy rain in the eastern Mid-Atlantic region disrupted flood-recovery efforts. Mild, often dry weather promoted rapid summer crop harvesting in the Plains and Midwest.
SOUTH AMERICA: In Cordoba and Santa Fe, Argentina, widespread late-month rainfall eased dryness for reproductive winter wheat and summer crop planting, but possibly caused flooding in Cordoba. Consistent October rainfall benefited wheat in Buenos Aires. In southern Brazil, late-month widespread rainfall also boosted soil moisture after inconsistent rainfall earlier in October. In southwestern Minas Gerias and northeastern Sao Paulo, below-normal October rainfall reduced moisture for coffee flowering.
EUROPE: In October, near-normal rainfall and temperatures favored germinating to emerging winter grains, while periods of dry weather helped summer crop harvesting. Periods of heavy rain slowed corn, cotton, and rice harvesting in the Iberian peninsula, but improved soil moisture conditions for winter grain planting. In eastern and extreme northern Europe, near- to below- normal precipitation helped summer crop harvesting, but decreased topsoil moisture needed for winter grain development.
FSU-WESTERN: Rain in southern Russia and eastern Ukraine eased prolonged dryness, improving prospects for winter wheat germination and establishment. Unfavorable dryness continued in south-central Ukraine, hindering winter wheat germination and establishment. Winter grains in northern Russia began entering dormancy in early November, about 2 weeks later than usual.
NORTHWESTERN AFRICA: Preparations for winter grain planting were likely underway in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. In Morocco, early-season rains likely prompted winter grain planting. A slow start to the autumn rainy season in Algeria and Tunisia hampered early winter grain planting, although recent rains in Tunisia helped to condition topsoils for fieldwork.
SOUTH ASIA: Since early October, the monsoon has continued its seasonal retreat. In northern and central areas, warmth and dryness favored maturing summer crops. In southern India, late-season rains increased irrigation for winter cropping. In the east, two tropical cyclones affected the main rice areas. The first eventually brought locally heavy rainfall to much of eastern India and Bangladesh. The second, one of the most powerful ever to hit the region, caused locally severe damage to crops and infrastructure in Orissa, an important rice producer.
EASTERN ASIA: Above-normal October rainfall boosted topsoil moisture for winter wheat planting and germination across the North China Plain. Across the Yangtze Valley, this above-normal rainfall also slowed single-crop rice harvesting but favored immature late double-crop rice. In Manchuria, seasonably cooler, drier weather favored summer crop harvesting. Above-normal rainfall slowed rice harvesting in South Korea and northern Japan.
SOUTHEAST ASIA: Above-normal October rainfall slowed rice harvesting across northern Vietnam, the northern Philippines, and portions of Thailand. In Java, Indonesia, near- to above-normal rainfall increased moisture supplies for main-season rice transplanting. Near-normal October rainfall maintained supplies for oil palm in peninsular Malaysia.
SOUTH AFRICA: In mid-October, widespread rain covered the corn belt, helping to condition topsoils for summer crop planting. The moisture also benefited flowering wheat. Since then, dry, warm weather has reduced soil moisture for germination while hastening wheat maturity. In Western Cape, conditions have been favorable for wheat harvesting but irrigation demands have increased in vineyards and orchards.
AUSTRALIA: Winter grain harvesting is underway in most areas. Wet weather over the past few weeks has raised concern for crop quality in Queensland and northern New South Wales, although the moisture was beneficial for cotton and sorghum. A drying trend in the southeast has reduced moisture reserves for immature wheat and barley.