This report includes the weather briefs, production briefs, and commodity feature articles from the full World Agricultural Production circular, with the exception of some of the statistical tables and charts. This report draws on information from USDA's global network of agricultural attaches and counselors, official statistics of foreign governments, other foreign source materials, and results of office analysis. Estimates of U.S. acreage, yield, and production are from the USDA Agricultural Statistics Board, except where noted. This report is based on unrounded data;numbers may not add to totals because of rounding. The report reflects official USDA estimates released in the World Agricultural Supply Estimates (WASDE-323) February 12, 1997.
The report was prepared by the Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division, FAS, AGBOX 1045, 14th and Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250-1000. Further information may be obtained by writing to the division, or by calling (202) 720-0888, 9516, or by FAX (202) 720-8880.
We plan to issue PART 2 of this circular every month, normally 5 working days AFTER the release of Part 1. The next issue of World Agricultural Production, Part 1, will be available electronically after 3:30 pm local time on March 12, 1997.
WEATHER BRIEFS BRAZIL: MOISTURE MOSTLY ADEQUATE IN ALL GROWING AREAS During December 1996, rainfall averaged near- to above-normal across most of southern Brazil. Near- to slightly below-normal rainfall occurred in Mato Grosso and Goias. During the first week of January 1997, scattered showers fell across Mato Grosso do Sul and Parana, keeping soils moist for vegetative soybeans. Further south, dry weather prevailed across Rio Grande do Sul. However, soil moisture remained adequate due to previous rainfall. Widespread heavy showers covered Mato Grosso, Goias, and Minas Gerais, boosting soil moisture for soybeans, while flooding was likely across portions of southern and western Minas Gerais. During January 5 - 11, light-to-moderate showers in southern Brazil, eased a drying trend that started in late December across Rio Grande do Sul. This moisture was beneficial for soybeans nearing reproduction. Elsewhere, moderate showers favored soybeans and corn. Heavier showers that week, exacerbated flooding across southern Minas Gerais. During January 12 - 18, hot weather across Rio Grande do Sul, along with isolated pockets of dryness, stressed flowering soybeans and corn. This dryness and heat was broken by widespread showers on January 19 and 20. Elsewhere in Brazil during January 12 - 25, showers covered most soybean growing areas, maintaining adequate moisture supplies for soybean reproduction. Dryness returned to Rio Grande do Sul, during January 21 - 25. During the week of January 26 through February 1, late week rainfall benefited reproductive soybeans across northern and central Rio Grande do Sul. In southern Rio Grande do Sul, dry weather favored rice but reduced irrigation supplies. Southern Rio Grande do Sul is Brazil's major rice growing region. Elsewhere, showers maintained favorable soil moisture levels. Finally, during February 2 - 8, showers covered the major soybean areas of southern Brazil, eliminating dryness in northwestern Rio Grande do Sul. Southern Rio Grande do Sul received moderate to heavy showers, increasing irrigation supplies but slowing early rice harvesting. SOUTHERN AFRICA: MOISTURE OUTLOOK MIXED Throughout December 1996, beneficial rain maintained favorable growing conditions in central and eastern sections of the corn growing areas. In the western corn belt, most of December's rain came late in the month and was preceded by periods of stressful heat. The sugarcane areas of Kwazulu-Natal also trended drier than normal for much of December but highs were limited to the lower 30's C. During the first week of January, moderate to heavy showers covered a broad section of the western corn belt, ending a drying trend that had depleted topsoil moisture reserves. In contrast, drier weather returned to the central and eastern corn belt, with only a few locations reporting rainfall of 25 to 50 millimeters or greater. During the week of January 5 - 11, drier weather returned to the western corn belt. Rainfall totaled 10 millimeters or less over most crop areas of North West and Orange Free State. Somewhat heavier rain fell in the northeastern section of the corn belt and crop areas in Kwazulu-Natal and Eastern Cape. From January 12 - 16, scattered and mostly light showers fell across the main corn producing areas. Heavier rain covered extreme eastern sections of the corn belt and sugarcane areas of Kwazulu-Natal. By mid-January corn was approaching the critical reproductive phase of growth, when it requires additional moisture for normal development. During January 19 - 25, scattered showers continued across the corn belt. Rain was highly beneficial in North West, an important white corn producer and moderate to heavy rain fell in Kwazulu-Natal's northern sugarcane areas, while drier weather dominated the southern crop areas. During January 26 through February 1, dry weather dominated the eastern half of the corn belt, with many location receiving no rain. To the west, moderate showers sustained crop vigor over sections of western Orange Free State and Northwest Province. Heavy rain fell along the coast of Kwazulu-Natal, increasing moisture for sugarcane growth. From February 2 - 8, warm, dry weather dominated the corn belt, likely resulting in some stress on reproductive corn. Rainfall was generally isolated and light throughout the region, although scattered, moderate showers brought some relief to northern corn late in the week. Western corn areas, trending dry since early January, experienced stressful highs in the mid to upper 30's C. Late-week showers benefited coastal sugarcane areas of Kwazulu-Natal. PRODUCTION BRIEFS NORTH KOREA: GRAIN PRODUCTION REVISED LOWER Total-grain production (milled rice, corn, wheat) in North Korea for 1996/97 is estimated at 2.4 million tons, down 1.0 million or 30 percent from last season. This is the lowest level for North Korean production since 2.6 million tons were estimated for the 1968/69 season. Milled rice output is estimated at 1.3, equaling last season's flood-damaged crop. For 1996/97, low spring temperatures delayed planting and unusually heavy rain in late-July caused serious localized flooding, especially in southwestern North Korea. However, hot and drier weather in August and mild weather allowed some damaged rice to recover. Harvested area is estimated at last season's level of 0.6 million hectares, due to the July flooding and lingering affects of last year's floods. Yield is estimated at 3.25 tons per hectare (paddy basis) or 2 percent below the 5-year average. Corn production is estimated at 1.0 million tons, down 1.0 million or 50 percent from last season. Heavy rains in July caused area and production losses (about 50,000 hectares and 150,000 tons), but significant losses occurred prior to harvest. According to the U.S. agricultural attache in Seoul, as much as half the corn crop was consumed as fresh corn during the late summer to supplement declining food rations. (USDA database reflects corn for grain only and not fresh corn.) Harvested area declined to 0.3 million hectares or 50 percent from last season due to the early harvest. Yield is estimated at 3.33 tons per hectare, up 3 percent from the 5-year average. Wheat production is estimated at 0.2 million tons, unchanged from last season. The wheat output estimate has been relatively constant throughout the past several years. KENYA: CORN PRODUCTION LOWERED DUE TO POOR SHORT-RAINS SEASON Corn production in Kenya for 1996/97 is estimated at 2.2 million tons, down 0.4 million or 15 percent from 1995/96. Harvested area is estimated at 1.5 million hectares, down 14 percent from last season as unfavorable weather, low corn prices and government policies led farmers to switch to other crops, according to the U.S. agricultural attache in Nairobi. This year was plagued by a poor short-rains season, especially in eastern and northeastern Kenya. In northeastern Kenya, the rains lasted about two weeks instead of two and a-half-months; in other areas, the short-rains season began late and ended early. Corn production during the short-rains season usually account for about 20 percent of the crop. Also, the long-rains season (March through June 1996) was below-normal. Periods of dryness in April and May along with above-normal temperatures stressed the corn crop and reduced yield potential. Yield is estimated at 1.47 tons per hectare or 3 percent above the 5-year average. FORMER SOVIET UNION: WEATHER AND CROP DEVELOPMENTS In January, below-normal precipitation fell in Ukraine, southern Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania, limiting moisture recharge. Above-normal precipitation fell over northern Russia, maintaining a deep snow cover. In early January, unseasonably cold weather prevailed over winter grain areas in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and the Baltics. However, on about January 14, a warming trend began over these areas and persisted until month's end, providing favorable overwintering conditions for dormant winter grains. In early February, unseasonable cold briefly returned to winter grain areas in Russia and Ukraine, where lowest temperatures ranged from -15 to -30 degrees Celsius. In general, snow cover was adequate to provide protection from extreme cold in most areas. However, some localized damage may have occurred, especially in parts of Ukraine where snow cover was more variable. Recently, a warming trend spread eastward over most areas west of the Urals, providing favorable conditions for winter grains but melting some protective snow cover in the far west and south. FEATURE COMMODITY ARTICLES INDICATIONS FOR 1997/98 FOREIGN COTTON AREA Foreign cotton area for the 1997/98 season depends on several factors with cotton prices and those of competing crops playing a crucial role. Foreign cotton area is also influenced by domestic and world financial conditions, government policies, and weather. The Cotlook A-Index represents the price level of international raw cotton offered to the market on a daily basis from several cotton trading countries. Generally, a very strong direct relationship exists between cotton area and this price index for the previous year. For the first five months of 1996/97, the index averaged 76 cents per pound of lint, down 13 cents from the same period in 1995/96. This factor alone suggests that foreign cotton area next year will be down from 1996/97 acreage. However, the fall in area should be mitigated as prices of competing crops are forecast to weaken, offsetting some of the impact from lower cotton prices. The lower area forecast is supported by U.S. agricultural attaches stationed in major cotton producing countries world-wide. Preliminary indications are that foreign cotton area in 1997/98 could range from 27.0 to 28.0 million hectares, compared with an estimated 28.2 million this year. The high end of the forecast range implies the advantageous impact of weaker prices for competing crops such as corn and in some cases wheat, favorable weather, and supportive government policies in several large producing countries. The low end of the forecast range considers the effect of lower cotton prices. In addition, area harvested could be reduced due to weather, financial problems, plant diseases, and insect infestations. China: Cotton area in China for 1997/98 is highly uncertain. A continuation of circumstances that affected the 1996 crop indicate that area will decline. Farmers are switching to other crops that provide a higher return on investment and require less use of inputs, especially labor. Grains and vegetable are the most frequently mentioned alternative crops, especially in China's northern provinces such as Hebei and Shandong. It is unlikely that the official procurement price (RMB14,000/MT or about 76.6 U.S. cents per pound) which the Government pays farmers for raw cotton will increase. Current exchange rate of RMB8.29 = US$1.00. The Cotton and Jute Corporation (CJC) has been paying farmers less than this price by downgrading the quality of the cotton farmers are selling, and in some cases even turning farmers away, thereby further dampening grower enthusiasm for cotton. Officially, the CJC must procure any cotton offered for sale by farmers. FSU-12: Cotton area in the former Soviet Union for 1997/98 is forecast to remain near this year's 2.5 million hectares. As in past years, two opposing forces continue to influence the size of the cotton area. Each Republic wants to maintain or expand area to earn hard currency; on the other hand, they also want to increase food production to feed growing populations. In addition to their food supply concerns, they continue to experience increases in land salinity from cotton production encouraging a shift of land out of cotton cultivation. On balance, area is expected to stabilize if higher-yielding varieties can maintain or increase production. Mexico: Cotton area is expected to decrease significantly in Mexico for 1997/98. According to both private and government sources, Mexico's cotton output for 1997/98 is projected to fall about 12 percent from the previous year. This will be primarily a result of reduced planted area, as growers shift to alternative crops in response to cotton's relatively low price and the lack of government production incentives. For example, in Sinaloa and southern Sonora, producers likely will be attracted by better prices for horticultural products and improved availability of water. In 1996/97, much of Mexico's increased production of cotton was the result of a doubling of Sinaloa's planted area when water supplies were tighter. Brazil: Cotton area is forecast down from the 1996/97 season as relative lower foreign cotton prices reduce demand for domestic cotton. Because of this, higher prices of other crops such as soybeans and sugarcane have reallocated area from cotton to these crops during the current season. With no change in Brazilian import policy, the trend of favoring cotton imports over domestic cotton is likely to continue. The result is an area down from the 750,000 hectares of this year. Within Brazil there is contention between the cotton growers and the importers caused by the availability of credit. Credit is cheaper for cotton importers than for growers. Cotton imports from Argentina have also reduced the demand for Brazilian cotton as these imports enter with a zero tariff rate. Growers are also dissatisfied with the Brazilian Government for its non-support of cotton. Brazilian cotton growers continue to blame part of their production difficulties on imports, against which they cannot compete. Some growers are advocating an increase in Brazil's tariff on imported cotton from 3 to 6 percent. This proposed increase, however, has reportedly met resistance from the Brazilian textile industry. Argentina: Cotton area for 1997/98 in Argentina is projected higher than this year's estimated 0.9 million hectares as stable or slightly better domestic cotton prices are forecast for 1996/97. This assumes that returns on alternative crop are not to different from the current year and that the strong demand from Brazilian textile mills continues into the outyear. This year cotton plantings fell well below Argentina's goal of over 1.0 million hectares as a result of unfavorable weather which caused poor crop stands and the need to reseed two or even three times in certain areas, particularly in the central part of Chaco Province. Nevertheless, farmers likely will still plant cotton because of its higher returns relative to competing crops. Paraguay: The cotton industry in Paraguay has declined in recent years, as several negative factors have reduced profitability. Principal among these are the inability of low-income farmers to obtain sufficient credit, lack of quality inputs such as good seed, and last year's low international prices. The combination of these factors reduced this year's level of plantings to an estimated 200,000 hectares, down from 350,000 the year before. However, there are factors that could alter this trend and push Paraguayan cotton area back to a more normal level for 1997/98. Since 20 percent of the farm population depend directly of cotton farming, the Government is likely to continue to support cotton by providing inputs and working capital through development banks. Secondly, emphasis is being placed on mechanization of cotton farming, thereby reducing production costs. Pakistan: Cotton area in Pakistan for 1997/98 should not be significantly different from 1996/97 since domestic seed cotton and lint prices have remained relatively high in relation to the international market. Strong demand by the textile industry under Pakistan's new free trade scenario also supports higher domestic prices. The average sale price of seed cotton has been between Rs. 750-850 per maund (one maund=37.324 kgs), about 23 to 26 U.S. cents per pound at the current exchange rate of US$1.00=Rs. 40.08. To assure continued large area, the Government halted increased sugarcane planting in cotton growing regions of the Punjab. Also, the planned wide-scale distribution of new insect and virus tolerant varieties in 1997/98 will help maintain cotton acreage at the 1996/97 level. In addition, the 20,000 hectares lost during 1996/97 flooding may also be available during 1997/98. However, this forecast should be viewed with some caution because of the unpredictability of cotton trade policy in the future. India: Cotton area in India will be influenced primarily by the current season's ending stocks and prices. Weak cotton prices are likely to result in lower area in 1997/98. Price relationships between competing crops such as cotton and rice in northern India, tobacco and chillies in the south, and oilseeds and sugarcane in the central region also will be important factors. Cotton is one of the few crops where prices have been unusually low in recent months. There is likely to be a decline in cotton area in Punjab and Haryana as farmers switch to more profitable crops such as rice, fruit, and vegetables. Similarly, higher prices for tobacco and chillies in Andhra Pradesh could induce a shift to these crops. One region of uncertainty is the central state of Maharashtra which is a major producer of both cotton and sugarcane. Producers of both crops are suffering from weak prices and it is not clear how this will affect cotton planting. Sugarcane planting for the 1997/98 season is underway, and, if area declines, cotton area will likely expand. Australia: Cotton area for 1997/98 in Australia is estimated below the record 390,000 hectares harvested for 1996/97 due to lower prices. Reservoir levels at 75 percent of capacity and heavy rains in September/October 1996 boosted Australia's cotton production prospects. As a result, crop area rose sharply as more irrigated cotton was planted. Turkey: In Turkey, cotton area for 1997/98 is forecast to decline due to better returns from wheat cultivation in the Aegean area and from horticultural production in Cukurova. Because of the lack of an orderly marketing system and high domestic cotton prices, demand for Turkish cotton by textile mills is forecast to decline, reducing prices at planting time for the 1997/98 cotton crop. Currently, import activity is reported to be unusually brisk due largely to the high domestic price and because of quality problems with the current crop. Assuming no significant changes in production policy for 1997/98 season, importation of less expensive cottons are expected to continue. Egypt: Cotton area for 1997/98 is forecast to increase in Egypt from the 387,000 hectares harvested in 1996/97. The Government is paying farmers a higher price for their 1996/97 cotton and this increase in earnings should have a positive effect on planting decisions for the 1997/98 crop. Greece: According to Greece's Hellenic Cotton Board, area for 1997/98 should be down from the 420,000 hectares harvested for 1996/97. The lower area with its corresponding decline in production is an attempt by the Board to reduce the European Union (EU) levy payments made by farmers. Even with the lower area, production is forecast to be high enough that Greek farmers will still need to pay the levy for production in excess of the EU quota. Nevertheless, cotton is projected to continue to dominate among field crops due to comparatively higher returns and lower irrigation water demand. Cotton is Greece's most important field crop and has replaced large areas of other irrigated crops in recent years. Foreign Cotton Area, Yield, and Production Year Area Yield Production (1,000 Hectares) (Kg/Ha) (1,000 Bales) 1987/88 26,802 539 66,335 1988/89 28,982 518 69,012 1989/90 27,707 531 67,549 1990/91 28,423 548 71,511 1991/92 29,575 575 78,067 1992/93 28,121 513 66,232 1993/94 25,533 516 60,567 1994/95 26,758 536 65,858 1995/96 28,987 557 74,118 1996/97 Estimate 28,247 518 67,261 5-Year Avg. 27,682 538 68,447 1997/98 Forecast 27,000 to 28,000 NOTE: Information in this article is based on field reports received in early January 1997 from U. S. agricultural counselors and attaches, together with information from FAS/USDA Washington analysts. Actual area could vary from these estimates for a number of reasons, including government policy changes, weather during the crop season, and price changes for cotton and competing crops. The first official USDA forecast of total 1997/98 foreign harvested area will be issued in May. Individual country estimates for area, yield, and production will be released in July of this year. Ronald R. Roberson, Cotton Chairperson Phone: (202) 720-0879 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org GRAIN PRODUCTION IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION FOR 1996/97 Preliminary harvest results indicate that estimated 1996/97 grain production in the former Soviet Union (FSU-15) increased less than 1 percent this year, to 121.0 million tons. Russia and Kazakstan enjoyed modest rebounds from low 1995/96 output and production increased in the Baltic States, Belarus, and Central Asia. These improvements, however, were offset by poor harvests in Ukraine and neighboring Moldova where production fell to the lowest levels in over 30 years. Russian grain production for 1996/97 is estimated at 67.4 million tons, not including roughly 2.0 million tons of pulses and miscellaneous grains. Although 1996/97 total-grain yield is down nearly 20 percent from the ten-year average, crops fared better than in 1995/96 when severe drought in European Russia drove yield to the lowest level since 1981/82. Wheat production is estimated at 35.0 million tons, up 4.9 million from last year. Wheat area increased from 23.9 million hectares to an estimated 25.0 million, and yields jumped over 10 percent. Coarse-grain output is estimated at 32.1 million tons, including 15.5 million barley, 9.5 million oats, 1.0 million corn, 0.6 million millet, and 5.5 million rye. Estimated rye area and production are up roughly 35 percent from last year, marking the first year-to-year increase since 1992/93. Despite the year-to-year increase in total Russian grain output, total-grain yield was below average in every major production region. A combination of factors prevented the Russian crop from reaching the 70 to 72 million tons forecast by Russian agricultural officials late in the growing season: a continued decline in soil fertility (due chiefly to high fertilizer prices); localized summer dryness in the North Caucasus and lower Volga Valley; and wet harvest weather in Western Siberia. Ukraine grain output for 1996/97 fell to a 33-year low. Production is estimated at 23.1 million tons (not including roughly 1.4 million tons of pulses and miscellaneous grains), down 28 percent from last year. The weather was remarkably unfavorable for crops throughout the growing season: a prolonged winter delayed both the resumption of tillering for fall-sown winter grains and the sowing of spring grains, and the stress was compounded by unusually high May temperatures and summer drought. Wheat production is estimated at 13.5 million tons, down 2.8 million from last year despite a 14-percent increase in area. Lower area and a 30-percent drop in estimated yield pushed barley production from 9.6 million tons in 1995/96 to an estimated 5.7 million in 1996/97. Following persistent summer dryness in southern and eastern Ukraine, nearly 50 percent of the 1.2 million hectares planted as corn-for-grain was reportedly harvested as silage; corn-for-grain output is estimated at 1.9 million tons compared to 3.4 million last year. Kazakstan grain production for 1996/97 is estimated at 11.3 million tons, up from 9.4 million last year. Severe drought had a major impact on grain output for the second consecutive year. The dryness, however, was less widespread this year than last. The western half of the prime grain production region--including Kustanay, the top grain-producing oblast--was especially hard hit, while crops in northeastern oblasts escaped significant damage. Wheat production is estimated at 8.0 million tons, up 1.5 million from last year, and barley output rose 0.2 million to 2.4 million. Kazakstan grain area dropped 9 percent in 1996 to 17.1 million hectares. Area has fallen an average of 1.7 million hectares per year since 1993/94, as farms have converted less fertile land from grain to perennial forage production. Barley has accounted for nearly two-thirds of the decrease while the area sown to more profitable wheat has remained fairly stable. A recent report submitted by the U. S. embassy in Almaty cited several factors--in addition to weather and lower area--that contributed to this year's below-average harvest. o Soil fertility has fallen by 30 percent since 1965, according to experts from the Kazakstan Agriculture Academy. Few farmers can afford to apply adequate amounts of fertilizer in this time of drastically reduced State subsidies. o Autumn rain and early snow interfered with harvest in northern areas and resulted in substantial losses. o Farms continue to struggle with the chronic problems of poorly-maintained equipment, tight fuel supplies, and inadequate storage facilities. Crops were sometimes left to rot in the field or were stored in crumbling silos. o Russia periodically suspended delivery of electricity in order to force payment of overdue electric bills. Farms were unable to properly clean and dry harvested grain, resulting in additional post-harvest losses. Belarus grain production climbed to 6.3 million tons, up from 5.5 million last year, partly in response to a 140-percent increase in estimated wheat area. Reported total-grain yield was up 6 percent. Yields improved also in the Baltic States, reaching a five-year high. Production for 1996/97 is estimated at 2.4 million tons in Lithuania (up from 1.9 million last year), 0.9 million in Latvia (up from 0.7 million), and 0.6 million in Estonia (up from 0.5 million). The harvest results were not as good in Moldova, where the grain crop suffered from the second severe drought in three years. The estimated yield for both winter-wheat and corn-for-grain dropped over 35 percent from last year's levels, and total grain production is estimated at 1.6 million tons, down from 2.5 million. Grain production in the Caucasus region has grown by 14 percent since 1994/95 in response to increased area. Azerbaijan total-grain production is estimated at 1.1 million tons; wheat production rose 15 percent this year to 0.8 million tons. Wheat output increased 40 percent in Armenia and comprises over 70 percent of the country's total grain production of 0.3 million tons. The estimated production of wheat (0.2 million tons) and total-grain (0.5 million) in Georgia has remained steady over the past three years. Higher yields and increased wheat area boosted 1996/97 grain production in Central Asia. The reported total-grain output rose from 2.7 to 3.1 million tons in Uzbekistan and from 1.0 to 1.4 million tons in Kyrgyzstan. Tajikistan enjoyed an estimated 17-percent year-to-year increase in grain production, but maintains its position as the lowest grain-producing nation in the former Soviet Union with output estimated at slightly below 0.3 million tons. Turkmenistan was the only Central Asian state whose harvest failed to surpass last year's level. Estimated production fell 0.2 million tons, to 0.8 million, with some reports suggesting even lower output. Mark Lindeman, Regional Analyst Phone: (202) 690-0143 E-mail: email@example.com RUSSIA AND UKRAINE 1997/98 WINTER GRAINS Winter-grain sowings in Russia for 1997/98 totaled 13.0 million hectares, a drop of 14 percent from the previous year, according to figures published by the State Statistical Committee. Meanwhile, Ukraine winter-grain area rose 4 percent to a reported 7.4 million hectares. Crop conditions are mixed: winter grains entered dormancy under generally favorable conditions, but northern Ukraine was hit by bitterly cold weather in late December which likely resulted in localized winterkill. The North Caucasus region--Russia's prime winter- wheat zone--had sufficient protective snow cover and the crop escaped virtually unscathed. Russia's winter-grain area dropped 2.1 million hectares from last season's reported 15.1 million, and is likely at its lowest level since 1973, when harvested area dipped below 12.0 million hectares. Area numbers for individual winter grains--wheat, rye, and barley--have not yet been released by the State Statistical Committee. Wheat typically comprises roughly two-thirds of total winter-grain area, which suggests a sizable drop in winter-wheat area at a time when agricultural enterprises throughout the former Soviet Union (FSU) are emphasizing wheat production. North Caucasus winter-wheat sowings got off to a good start last fall, owing to adequate moisture and mild weather, and the crop received abundant snow cover which protected it from cold-weather damage and increased potential soil-moisture reserves. Conditions are not quite as favorable in the lower Volga Valley, however; this region has felt the impact of unusual dryness for the past two years and would benefit from abundant precipitation to replenish soil moisture. For the first time in five years, winter grains in southern Ukraine enjoyed uniformly plentiful soil moisture during germination and establishment. In late December, however, unusually cold weather swept into Ukraine from Poland, and snow cover was patchy in northern and central oblasts when minimum temperatures repeatedly dropped below -20 degrees Celsius between December 25 and January 5. Although some areas-- especially in northern Ukraine--have likely suffered greater cold-related damage than occurred last season, last year's crop was negatively affected by low surface-soil moisture in eastern Ukraine which hampered germination and establishment. Official reports indicate that overall damage has been lower this season despite localized damage. Mark Lindeman, Regional Analyst Phone: (202) 690-0143 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org KIWIFRUIT PRODUCTION IN SELECTED COUNTRIES Kiwifruit production in selected countries for 1996/97 is estimated at 984,500 tons, up 5 percent from 1995/96. In the Northern Hemisphere, kiwifruit production is estimated at 562,100 tons, up 8 percent from 1995/96 because of significant increases in Italy, Greece, Korea, and Spain which offset declines in the other countries. The Southern Hemisphere crop is forecast up 2 percent from last season, to 422,400 tons, based on slightly larger crops in Chile and New Zealand. In this article, area and production data are reported on a split-year (October through September) basis for both Northern and Southern Hemisphere producers. The Northern Hemisphere harvest begins in October. In the Southern Hemisphere, kiwifruit is harvested beginning in April of the second half of the split year. NORTHERN HEMISPHERE France: Kiwifruit production in 1996/97 is forecast at 77,000 tons, down slightly from 1995/96. Planted area declined 3 percent from 1995/96, leading to the decline in output. Competitive imports from Italy and off-season imports from Chile and New Zealand have limited the expansion of kiwifruit production in France. The bulk of the crop is grown in the southwest region of the country and the island of Corsica. Greece: Kiwifruit output in 1996/97 is estimated at a record 50,000 tons, a 23-percent increase from last season, because of abundant rainfall and favorable temperatures. The area planted to kiwifruit has stabilized at 4,000 hectares and is not forecast to increase in the near future because of low producer prices and difficulty marketing the product. Opening grower prices this season in the Pieria district averaged 110 drachmas per kilogram (US$0.46 per kilogram), near the 1995/96 average of 119 drachmas per kilogram (US$0.51 per kilogram), but have since declined, ranging at present between 60 to 70 drachmas per kilogram (US$0.25 to US$0.29 per kilogram). Production is projected to increase over the next three to four years as some of the vineyards have not yet reached full bearing. Italy: Production of kiwifruit in 1996/97 is estimated at 330,000 tons, up 14 percent from last season, but well below the record 1992/93 output of 374,00. Italy remains the world's largest kiwifruit-producing country, outperforming New Zealand by 70,000 tons. The large crop estimate for 1996/97 is the result of generally favorable weather, with the exception of some Northern Italian regions where pollination problems during the spring resulted in small-sized fruit. Grower prices in 1996/97 have averaged approximately 650 lire per kilogram (US$0.42 per kilogram), down significantly from last season's range of 700 to 1,000 lire per kilogram (US$0.45 to US$0.64 per kilogram) because of this season's large output. For the next few years, Italy's kiwifruit output is projected to remain around 300,000 tons, with area remaining below 20,000 hectares. Japan: Kiwifruit production in 1996/97 is estimated at 42,900 tons, a 12-percent decline from 1995/96 because of a significant reduction in planted area precipitated by the declining competitiveness of domestically-produced kiwifruit relative to imports. In the 1980's, under the guidance of the mikan (tangerine) acreage reduction scheme set by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and local cooperatives, many Japanese mikan orchards were switched to kiwifruit production. This caused Japanese kiwifruit production to increase significantly, reaching a record level of 68,900 tons in 1990/91. Since then, both production and kiwifruit area have declined, reflecting the saturation of Japan's kiwifruit market due to increased domestic production, competition with imports, and slackening interest in the product among consumers and retailers. By the year 2000, kiwifruit area is projected to contract by approximately 15 percent and production is estimated to decline approximately 9 percent. Korea: Production of kiwifruit in 1996/97 is forecast at 13,000 tons, up 7 percent from last year because of increased output from maturing vines and larger bearing area. However, crop quality is reportedly poor--smaller sizes and high moisture content--because of inclement weather. Low temperatures during flowering and pollination, coupled with dry weather during the growing season, resulted in the smaller fruit sizes. Additionally, excessive rainfall during the harvest led to rapid maturation and soft fruit flesh. Portugal: The 1996/97 kiwifruit crop is forecast at 8,500 tons, down 3 percent from 1995/96 because of frost damage and heavy rains during the bloom period. In addition, the use of inputs declined in 1996/97 because of low producer prices. Producer prices have been on a downward trend since 1988 when they peaked at an average of 300 escudos per kilogram (US$2.08 per kilogram). Prices in 1995/96 averaged about 85 escudos per kilogram (US$0.52 per kilogram); in 1996/97, prices are estimated to average about 80 escudos per kilogram (US$0.49 per kilogram). In the long run, further expansion in this sector is not anticipated because of strong competition from other producing countries within the European Union. Spain: Production of kiwifruit in 1996/97 is estimated at 13,000 tons, up 57 percent from the revised 1995/96 estimate of 8,300, despite a 3- percent decline in planted area. Ideal weather throughout the growing season, especially during flowering and pollination in the main producing region of Galicia--resulted in an abundant crop of good-sized fruit. Planted area in 1996/97 is estimated down slightly as some growers switched to wine-grape production because of more favorable returns. United States: Kiwifruit output in 1996/97 is estimated at 27,700 tons, down 20 percent from last season. The downturn is due to an unusually warm winter which did not provide enough chilling hours, coupled with cool spring weather that extended the bloom period and increased the average number of blooms per vine--resulting in significantly smaller-sized fruit. Planted area was down slightly in 1996/97, to 2,752 hectares. SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE Australia: Kiwifruit production in 1996/97 is forecast at 5,400 tons, down 10 percent from last season. The 1996/97 growing season has been characterized by cool weather, especially in December, which slowed fruit maturation. The cool weather has resulted in vine growth competing with fruit growth to the detriment of fruit development. The area planted to kiwifruit has stabilized at 450 hectares, less than half the 1,128 hectares under cultivation during the peak year of 1987/88. . Chile: Although the area planted to kiwifruit is forecast down 11 percent in 1996/97, to 8,511 hectares, production is projected to increase 3 percent, to a record 157,000 tons. The decline in area will likely be offset by more vineyards reaching full-yield potential. In the short term, planted area is expected to level off at 8,400 hectares; production is projected to stabilize at about 157,000 tons, of which 80 percent will be exported. New Zealand: Kiwifruit production in 1996/97 is forecast at 260,000 tons, up 1-percent from 1995/96, despite a slight decline in area planted. The trend appears to be toward larger fruit sizes and better quality fruit, largely due to intensive management of pollination, thinning, and canopy activities. Weather throughout the 1995/96 season was ideal--a combination of a cool winter and a warm summer with well- distributed rainfall--resulting in good fruit sizes and quality. To date, the 1996/97 growing season has been ideal in the Bay of Plenty, where nearly 80 percent of New Zealand's kiwifruit crop is grown. The area planted to kiwifruit is projected to remain static because of tight producer returns, stiff competition in international markets, and the press of urbanization in the Bay of Plenty area. However, there has been a conversion to a new cultivar from China, Actinidia chinensis, which is being grafted onto existing Hayward vines (Actinidia deliciosa). Chinensis is closely related to the common kiwifruit varieties, yet they are virtually fuzz-free and some cultivars are pure yellow inside instead of the normal emerald green. The chinensis variety is expected to comprise 25 percent of the export crop within the next two to three years. Grower prices are forecast up slightly from last year, to NZ$4.30 per tray (US$2.93 per tray, 1 tray=3.6 kilograms), because of currently strong export demand. ____________________________________________ Kelly Kirby Strzelecki, Horticulture Chairperson Phone: (202) 720-6791 E-mail: email@example.com CORN SITUATION IN SELECTED COUNTRIES Corn production potential in the major Southern Hemisphere producing countries for 1996/97 is projected to be favorable this season due to increased area and yield prospects. Production estimates for Brazil, Argentina, Indonesia, and Thailand's are projected to be higher than 1995/96, while South Africa's output is estimated lower. (See table 5 of this circular for area, yield, and production for individual countries.) Argentina: Corn production in Argentina for 1996/97 is estimated at 14.5 million tons, up 3.4 million or 31 percent from last season. Harvested area is estimated at 3.3 million hectares, up 22 percent from 1995/96. Strong prices and generally favorable weather spurred estimated area to the highest level since 3.4 million hectares were harvested in 1985/86. Last year's excessive dryness increased crop losses to above-average levels, while this year's losses are projected to be near an average 13 percent. Generally favorable growing conditions and increased fertilizer use has increased yield potential this season to an estimated 4.39 tons per hectare, up from last year, but below the record yield of 4.45 tons per hectare in 1994/95. Harvest activity begins in March and continues into June. Brazil: Corn production for 1996/97 in Brazil is estimated at 34.0 million tons, up 1.5 million or 5 percent from 1995/96. Harvested area is estimated at 14.0 million hectares, up 0.2 million or 1 percent from last year. Generally favorable weather prevailed throughout most of the growing season; however, dry weather in Rio Grande do Sul from mid-December to mid-January combined with temperatures about 4 degrees centigrade above normal stressed the crop during grain fill. In other southern states, January rainfall has been excessive in some areas causing localized damage to the crop. Yield is estimated at 2.43 tons per hectare, up from last season and slightly above the 5-year average yield of 2.39 tons. Corn in Parana and Rio Grande do Sul will be harvested soon and account for about 30 percent of the total corn crop. South Africa: Corn production in South Africa for 1996/97 is estimated at 9.5 million tons, down 0.7 million or 7 percent from last season. Harvested area is estimated at 3.4 million hectares, up 0.1 million or 3 percent from 1995/96. Soil moisture at planting was the best in years and has been regularly supplemented by good rainfall. Area this season is more tentative than usual as any surplus production will have to be marketed without the traditional Maize Board's safety net of a built-in corn stabilization price. Yield is estimated at 2.79 tons per hectare, down from last year's bumper level, but above the 5-year average of 2.41 tons per hectare. South Africa's weather is historically extremely volatile and rainfall and temperature in February and early-March are critical in determining final output. Indonesia: Corn production for 1996/97 in Indonesia is estimated at 6.6 million tons, up 0.6 million or 10 percent from 1995/96. Harvested area is estimated at 3.6 million hectares, slightly higher than the previous season. The government policy of encouraging farmers to plant hybrid corn is in full swing. Recent field trips by the U.S. agricultural counselor in Jakarta indicate that farmers are eager to plant the hybrid corn because they believe it can generate higher income. Yield is estimated at 1.86 tons per hectare, up from last year and nearly equaling the record set in 1991/92. The dry-season corn harvest is now complete, while the rainy-season corn harvest will commence in April. Thailand: Corn production in Thailand for 1996/97 is estimated at 4.0 million tons, up 0.3 million or 8 percent from last season. Harvested area is estimated at 1.2 million hectares, up 5 percent from 1995/96. Despite record high prices for corn last season, reports indicate that area expansion this season was limited by a lack of farm labor. Yield is estimated at a record 3.33 tons per hectare due to generally favorable weather and increased inputs. Producers are using more high- yielding hybrid seed and fertilizer this year due to reduced fertilizer prices and attractive corn prices. Production potential was affected slightly by heavy rains during the August - October period which caused flooding and resulted in localized damage to the crops. _______________________________ Timothy Rocke, Grains Chairman Phone: (202) 720-1572 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org DECIDUOUS FRUIT AND TABLE GRAPE SITUATION Production of apples and pears by the worlds's leading commercial producers in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is being reported at normal levels, although moderately higher than last season. Apple production for 1996/97 is estimated at 42.26 million tons, up 9 percent from 1995/96. Pear production is estimated at 5.95 million tons, a 3-percent increase from last season. Table grape production totaled 8.13 million tons in 1996, up slightly from 1995. APPLES Southern Hemisphere The leading commercial apple producers in the Southern Hemisphere are forecast to harvest a crop totaling a record 4.32 million tons during the 1996/97 season (crop harvested in early-1997), up 5 percent from last year. Current assessments indicate modest increases in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, and Chile. Argentina: Apple production in 1996/97 is forecast at 1.28 million tons, up 11 percent from 1995/96 because of favorable weather. Apple output in 1995/96 was revised upward--from 986,000 tons to 1.15 million-- because the amount of freeze-damaged fruit was overestimated. Old apple trees are being replaced with new varieties using a higher-density planting system. In 1996, producers replaced an estimated 430,000 trees in Rio Negro and Neuquen provinces with new varieties--mainly Hi Early, Chanar 34, Fuji, Braeburn, and Royal Gala--in response to export demand. Australia: The forecast for the 1996/97 apple crop is up 32 percent from 1995/96, to 369,000 tons. The upturn reflects an increase in bearing tree numbers and excellent spring weather which fostered heavy flowering and a good fruit set. Over 30 percent of Australia's apple trees are not yet bearing. Of these, most are new varieties which bear fruit at an earlier age than the old varieties. Most of the newer trees are planted at a higher density which, over the next five years, will lead to increased production per hectare. The new, popular varieties include Pink Lady, Lady Williams, Fuji, and Gala. Brazil: The 1996/97 apple harvest is forecast at 575,000 tons, 9 percent above last year's crop because of a slight increase in harvested area and improved weather. The apple crop in the state of Santa Catarina--which supplies over 50 percent of Brazil's annual apple output--is projected up 15 percent with good fruit quality and sizes, despite heavy rainfall during flowering. Approximately 70 percent of the current crop is estimated to be export-quality fruit, compared to 50 percent in 1995/96. As a result, the amount of apples for processing is forecast between 20,000 and 30,000 tons, compared to 120,000 last season. The area planted to apples has remained fairly stable over the past few years. However, output is projected to increase over the next few years as apple trees planted in 1993 and 1994 reach full maturity. Chile: Despite higher-than-normal temperatures during the spring which affected the budding period, the 1996/97 apple crop is forecast up 3 percent, to 940,000 tons, because of a 6-percent increase in bearing area. After several years of small increases in the total area planted to apples, growers have boosted apple area significantly in the past few years, principally in Region VII (Curico - Talca area) and Region VIII (Chillan). A lack of alternative crops in these areas, coupled with the potential of the new varieties, provided the incentive for many growers not only to replace old orchards but to increase planted area. Because of the high percentage of non-bearing trees, commercial production is projected to increase to approximately 1.2 million tons within the next five years. Producers continue to diversify their orchards with plantings of the new, popular varieties--Fuji, Gala, Jonathan, and Braeburn--and uproot traditional varieties such as Red Delicious and it's variations. Red apples constitute about 70 percent of total output and are grown mainly for the European market and the Middle East. The principal green variety, Granny Smith, is exported for fresh market sale in Europe and the Untied States and processed domestically into concentrated apple juice. New Zealand: Apple production in 1996/97 is forecast at 480,000 tons, down sharply from the record 1995/96 crop of 547,300 tons. Repeated hailstorms over all growing areas during the growing season reduced both the quantity and quality of this season's crop. Although total production is forecast down 12 percent, production of export-quality fruit is estimated down 16 percent or more because of hail damage. Few orchards were untouched and large volumes of damaged fruit are being processed into juice. The storms hit central Otago, Wairarapa, and the major growing areas in Nelson and Hawkes Bay in mid-November. The major growing regions experienced second and third hailstorms in late-December and early-January. The Government has announced a modest package designed to help fruit growers, including direct financial assistance for hail damage. Local assistance includes subsidized labor for growers who have lost more than half of their crop; social service assistance for growers who are unable to cover the cost of living; and grants of several thousands of dollars for urgent technical advice. The hail damage also has prompted New Zealand's Apple and Pear Board to release a new brand dubbed "Shining Star". The new brand will be for fruit of a slightly lower standard than their typical brand, meaning that it can have less color and a few more blemishes. South Africa: The 1996/97 crop is forecast at 675,000 tons, down 4 percent from last year's bumper harvest despite a slight increase in area planted, to 20,950 hectares. Granny Smith and Golden Delicious combined to account for nearly 65 percent of South Africa's bearing trees. However, of the approximately 3.9 million non-bearing trees, new varieties such as Gala, Royal Gala, Braeburn, and Fuji comprise about 46 percent. Northern Hemisphere The 1996/97 estimate of Northern Hemisphere apple production is 37.95 million tons, 2 percent higher than the October forecast (WAP 10-96), and up 9 percent from 1995/96. The upturn since October reflects larger-than-expected crops in China (up 700,000 tons, to 16.7 million) and Italy (up 136,000 tons, to 2.1 million tons). PEARS Southern Hemisphere Pear production in the Southern Hemisphere for the 1996/97 season (crop harvested in early- 1997) is projected at 1.26 million tons, up 7 percent from 1995/96. Modest increases are forecast for Argentina, Chile, and South Africa, offsetting declines in Australia and New Zealand. Argentina: Pear production in 1996/97 is forecast at 573,900 tons, up 12 percent from last season because of favorable weather and new plantings coming into production. Approximately 1.0 million trees were planted during the last few years replacing old orchards with new cultivars. The predominant new variety is Abate Fetel, followed by Asian varieties such as Nijisseiki, Shinseiki, and Hosui. However, the dominant varieties produced in the country are Williams, Packham's Triumph, Beurre Bosc, and D'Anjou. Australia: The 1996/97 crop is forecast down 2 percent from 1995/96, to 155,800 tons because of a slight decrease in tree numbers and a decline in average yields. The Williams crop, which is mainly used for canning, was heavier, while the Packham's Triumph crop, which is grown for the fresh market, was lighter. Tree numbers were down because of the removal of older canning varieties, especially in New South Wales following the closure of a cannery. The loss of traditional variety trees has been compensated for by an increase in Nashi pear trees, which are planted at a higher density. Chile: Pear production in 1996/97 is forecast up 4 percent, to 262,000 tons, based on an increase in bearing tree numbers. Approximately 25 percent of Chile's pear area is planted with immature trees which will lead to future production increases. Improved economic returns for most pear producers during the past two seasons have resulted in improved crop quality through better orchard management. However, Asian pears (sand pears) continue to be uprooted, principally because of weak demand in the U.S. market, and replaced with European pear varieties or other deciduous fruits. There are over 36 pear varieties grown in Chile, with Packam's Triumph and Beurre Bosc comprising the bulk of the export varieties. New Zealand: The 1996/97 crop is forecast at 16,000 tons, down 18 percent from last season, primarily because of recent hailstorms. Approximately 30 percent of the export crop in the main growing area of Nelson was damaged by hail. Hawkes Bay, the secondary pear-growing region, also was badly hit by hailstorms. The Nelson area produces 50 percent of the New Zealand Comice crop, 80 percent of Buerre Bosc, and over 90 percent of the Taylors Gold variety, which are all grown primarily for the export market. South Africa: Pear production in 1996/97 is forecast at 256,000 tons, up 6 percent from 1995/96 because of a marginal increase in harvested area. Two varieties of pears--Packham's Triumph and Bon Chretien--dominate bearing tree production. However, new plantings of the Forelle, Beurre Bosc, and Comice varieties are slowly redistributing production. Northern Hemisphere Pear production in the Northern Hemisphere in 1996/97 is estimated at 4.69 million tons, down slightly from the October forecast (WAP 10-96), but up 2 percent from 1995/96. The downturn from October mainly reflects a reduction in European output, especially in France and Spain. TABLE GRAPES Southern Hemisphere The forecast for the Southern Hemisphere's 1997 table grape production is 1.08 million tons, up slightly from 1996. Increases in Argentina and South Africa fueled the modest growth. Argentina: Preliminary assessments indicate table grape production in 1997 will total 50,000 tons, up 11 percent from 1996 because of favorable weather in several growing areas. The main producing provinces in Argentina are San Juan, La Rioja, and Mendoza. In Mendoza Province, freezing temperatures and a lack of rain during the growing season reduced production prospects. However, the weather was more favorable in San Juan and La Rioja Provinces, where nearly 80 percent of table grapes are produced. Chile: Despite a slight increase in harvested area, table grape output in 1997 is forecast to remain stable at the 1996 level of 865,000 tons due to drought in most growing areas. A lack of snowfall last winter, for the second year in a row, has severely depleted reservoirs in most growing regions. Additionally, there are quality problems being reported for the red varieties. After a decline in planted area in 1996, table grape area is estimated to have stabilized at approximately 46,000 hectares. Aging vineyards are being replaced with new varieties that better reflect market demand. Based on the average age of plantings, Chile's table grape production will likely decline over the next few years. South Africa: Table grape output in 1997 is forecast at 165,000 tons, up 6 percent from 1996 because of favorable weather and an increase in harvested area. South Africa is continuing to increase planted area in response to growing domestic and foreign demand. Northern Hemisphere The 1996 estimate for table grape production in the Northern Hemisphere-- including the United States--is 7.07 million tons, up slightly from 1995. Modest production increases in Greece, Italy, and Spain offset declines in France, Mexico, and the United States. An estimate for the 1997 Northern Hemisphere crop will be released in October 1997. _______________________________________ Kelly Kirby Strzelecki, Horticulture Chairperson Phone: (202) 720-6791 E-mail: email@example.com APPLE PRODUCTION - Selected Countries (1,000 Metric tons) 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1/ NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NORTH AMERICA Canada 553.5 590.8 560.0 Mexico 488.0 427.0 466.0 United States 5,216.6 4,801.3 4,732.8 Total 6,258.1 5,819.1 5,758.8 EUROPEAN UNION: 2/ Austria 3/ 286.7 324.2 308.6 Belgium/Luxembourg 527.7 513.9 300.8 Denmark 77.5 65.0 65.0 France 2,166.3 2,088.5 2,048.8 Germany 2,079.5 1,373.0 1,775.7 Greece 322.0 300.6 290.0 Italy 2,153.0 1,889.0 2,100.0 Netherlands 590.0 595.0 490.0 Spain 739.4 842.9 875.1 Sweden 70.0 66.7 66.7 United Kingdom 275.9 198.7 183.8 Total 9,288.0 8,257.5 8,504.5 OTHER EUROPE: 2/ Bulgaria 76.5 80.0 90.0 Hungary 610.0 353.0 475.0 Norway 45.3 52.6 49.0 Poland 1,441.0 1,288.0 1,500.0 Romania 525.0 500.0 470.0 Serbia/Montenegro 148.0 141.0 152.0 Slovakia 57.0 38.1 54.0 Turkey 2,095.0 2,100.0 2,100.0 Total 4,997.8 4,552.7 4,890.0 Russia 1,154.0 1,050.0 1,150.0 TOTAL EUROPE 15,439.8 13,860.2 14,544.5 ASIA: China 11,125.0 14,008.0 16,700.0 Japan 989.3 963.3 936.2 Taiwan 8.5 9.5 9.9 Total 12,122.8 14,980.8 17,646.1 Total Northern Hemisphere 33,820.7 34,660.1 37,949.4 SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 4/ Argentina 1,146.0 1,147.0 1,276.4 Australia 345.0 279.0 369.0 Brazil 483.2 527.4 575.0 Chile 860.0 910.0 940.0 New Zealand 480.7 547.2 480.0 South Africa 576.7 702.5 675.0 Total Southern Hemisphere 3,891.6 4,113.1 4,315.4 WORLD TOTAL 37,712.3 38,773.2 42,264.8 1/ Preliminary. 2/ Includes commercial and non-commercial production. 3/ Does not include apples produced exclusively for processing. 4/ For Southern Hemisphere countries, data refer to crop harvested in the second year. February 1997 Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Div., FAS, USDA PEAR PRODUCTION - Selected Countries (1,000 Metric tons) 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1/ NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NORTH AMERICA Canada 15.8 11.3 16.0 Mexico 30.0 28.0 27.4 United States 949.1 860.2 706.5 Total 994.9 899.5 749.9 EUROPEAN UNION: 2/ Austria 37.6 46.5 36.5 Belgium/Luxembourg 155.1 157.3 138.5 Denmark 7.8 7.4 7.5 France 343.6 308.6 313.0 Germany 418.7 419.5 436.0 Greece 73.0 55.5 65.0 Italy 1,022.0 958.0 1,048.0 Netherlands 140.0 165.0 130.0 Spain 543.0 469.0 571.1 Sweden 5.8 6.3 6.3 United Kingdom 25.8 34.8 38.8 Total 2,772.4 2,627.9 2,790.7 OTHER EUROPE: 2/ Bulgaria 33.0 21.5 21.0 Norway 3.2 3.3 2.4 Turkey 410.0 410.0 410.0 Serbia/Montenegro 73.0 67.0 72.0 Total 519.2 501.8 505.4 Russia 36.0 189.0 215.0 TOTAL EUROPE 3,327.6 3,318.7 3,511.1 ASIA: Japan 431.1 400.3 429.4 Total Northern Hemisphere 4,753.6 4,618.5 4,690.4 SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 3/ Argentina 491.0 513.0 573.9 Australia 155.2 159.2 155.8 Chile 236.0 252.0 262.0 New Zealand 19.4 19.5 16.0 South Africa 256.4 242.5 256.0 Total Southern Hemisphere 1,158.0 1,186.2 1,263.7 WORLD TOTAL 5,911.6 5,804.7 5,954.1 1/ Preliminary. 2/ Includes commercial and non-commercial production. 3/ For Southern Hemisphere countries, data refer to crops harvested in the second year. February 1997 Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Div., FAS, USDA TABLE GRAPE PRODUCTION - Selected Countries (1,000 Metric tons) 1994 1995 1996 1997 1/ NORTHERN HEMISPHERE France 79.1 136.8 126.0 N Greece 363.8 312.5 350.0 N Italy 1,524.0 1,412.0 1,450.0 N Japan 245.7 250.0 250.6 N Mexico 155.0 160.0 150.0 N Spain 300.8 391.7 431.6 N Turkey 3,450.0 3,550.0 3,550.0 N United States 733.6 773.7 759.6 N Total No. Hemisphere 6,852.0 6,986.7 7,067.8 N/ SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE Argentina 58.1 63.0 45.0 50.0 Chile 855.0 855.0 865.0 865.0 South Africa 143.5 156.0 156.0 165.0 Total So. Hemisphere 1,056.6 1,074.0 1,066.0 1,080.0 WORLD TOTAL 7,908.6 8,060.7 8,133.8 N/ 1/ Preliminary. February 1997 Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Div, FAS, USDA TABLE GRAPE PRODUCTION - Selected Countries (1,000 Metric tons) 1994 1995 1996 1997 1/ NORTHERN HEMISPHERE France 79.1 136.8 126.0 N Greece 363.8 312.5 350.0 N Italy 1,524.0 1,412.0 1,450.0 N Japan 245.7 250.0 250.6 N Mexico 155.0 160.0 150.0 N Spain 300.8 391.7 431.6 N Turkey 3,450.0 3,550.0 3,550.0 N United States 733.6 773.7 759.6 N Total No. Hemisphere 6,852.0 6,986.7 7,067.8 N/ SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE Argentina 58.1 63.0 45.0 50.0 Chile 855.0 855.0 865.0 865.0 South Africa 143.5 156.0 156.0 165.0 Total So. Hemisphere 1,056.6 1,074.0 1,066.0 1,080.0 WORLD TOTAL 7,908.6 8,060.7 8,133.8 N/ 1/ Preliminary. February 1997 Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Div., FAS, USDA[images/footer.html]